– The tundra is characterized by a layer of permafrost; a layer of permanently frozen subsoil.
– A tundra consists of strong winds; low precipitation; short & soggy summers; long, cold & dark winters; poorly developed soils; permafrost.
– Ground-hugging plants such as mosses, lichens, sedges, & short grasses all participate in the dominant plant life of a tundra.
– Tundras are located in North America, Asia & Europe.
– During the short, cool summer, the ground thaws to a depth of a few centimeters & become soggy & wet.